Haplogroups statistically explain 50% of the IQ variance among 42 nations. The amount explained is approximately the same as found by Rindermann et al.; the novelty of this paper is that a globally representative sample is used. Lynn and Vanhanen’s new book, Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences, which contains updated national IQs for 161 nations is due to release July 16th, so an enterprising researcher can soon replicate the results using a more comprehensive data bank. A novel extension of this line of research would be to look at the National K variance explainable.
Generally, these types of studies don’t seem to be able to reduce the genetic-environmental uncertainty concerning the origin of National IQ differences. (Refer below for a summary of the found biological, ecological, and historic cognitive correlates of national IQs.) They merely increase the a priori plausibility of a genetic hypothesis.
This paper first sets an equation for the average intelligence of a country or a human group, which is determined by genetic factors and other variables where education is one of them. Another equation representing a production function of education depends upon intelligence and different elements that improve the quality of education. These two equations solve for the average level of intelligence and the level of education simultaneously. A third equation is a production function, where the GDP of the country is determined by human capital, physical capital and labor. Human capital is approached by the level of education obtained in the first two equations.
The previous system is estimated in a cross section for 42 countries. Intelligence is approached by the IQ level by countries shown by Lynn and Vanhanen (2002); the genetic factors explaining intelligence are takenfrom the haplogroups maps of the Y DNA chromosome of McDonald (2005) (haplogroups being groups of distinct genes). Other factors explaining intelligence are nutrition-approached by the per capita ingestion of calories presented by FAO- and education. The elements that improve the quality of education are supposed to be the per primary pupil expenditure in education and the per capita expenditure on health of the HumanDevelopment Report. Real economic variables are taken from different sources, mainly from the Penn WorldTable.
Results show that in the determination of the IQ genetics matter. However, other factors much less related to genetics are equally important. The per primary pupil expenditure on education may boost both the level of the IQ and the level of education, which also can explain the so called Flynn effect (a situation where theIQ is increasing in time. Flynn (1984)). At the same time, human capital is approximated better for education than for the IQ itself.
Biological, ecological, and historic cognitive correlates of National IQ
Cranial Capacity (4)
Skin Color (various, cited in 3)
Temperature (various, cited in 3, also 1)
Climate (various, cited in 3, also 1)
Parasite load (1)
Technological differences circa 1000 BC, 0 AD, and 1500 AD (2)
Eminent Scientists from 800 BC to 1950 AD (6)
(1) Hassall and Sheratt, 2010. Statistical inference and spatial patterns in correlates of IQ
(4) Meisenberg and Woodley, 2012. Global behavioral variation: A test of differential-K. Personality and Individual Differences
(5) Rindermann et al., 2012. Haplogroups as evolutionary markers of cognitive ability
(6) Rindermann and Thompson, 2011. Cognitive Capitalism : The Effect of Cognitive Ability on Wealth, as Mediated Through Scientific Achievement and Economic Freedom
(7) Rodriguez-Arana, 2010. Intelligence and the Wealth of Nations: Genetics matter but there is still much room to reduce in equality