Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.
Dual-inheritance theory posits that the genotype has an impact on the evolution of human behavior and that cultural traits can be constrained by genetic imperatives. A large body of studies provides evidence that the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with executive function, working memory (WM), and intelligence. A survey of the population genetics database provides evidence that COMT gene frequencies vary across populations. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the COMT gene has an impact on cultural evolution, specifically on the adoption of an agricultural vs. a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Statistically significant differences in COMT allele frequencies between hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies were found. Ethnic groups whose economy is based on farming have higher frequencies of the Met allele (symbol: A), whereas societies based on a hunter-gatherer economy have very low frequencies of the Met allele and a disproportionate predominance of the Val allele. Moreover, the frequency of the Met allele was positively correlated to the populations’ IQ (r = 0.57). The FNBP1L gene (rs236330) is associated with childhood and adult intelligence and it varies in frequency across populations. Frequency of rs236330 was also significantly correlated with the populations’ IQ (r = 0.81). COMT and FNBP1L had fairly similar geographical distributions (r = 0.44) although the result did not reach statistical significance. The results suggest that the genotype of a population influences its cultural development in fairly specific and predictable ways. Met allele frequency was positively correlated with latitude (r = 0.56), suggesting selective pressure due to climate.
Not that there was any doubt.
Trzaskowski, M., Harlaar, N., Arden, R., Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., McMillan, A., Plomin, R. (2014). Genetic influence on family socioeconomic status and children’s intelligence. Intelligence, 42, 83-88.
Environmental measures used widely in the behavioral sciences show nearly as much genetic influence as behavioral measures, a critical finding for interpreting associations between environmental factors and children’s development. This research depends on the twin method that compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins, but key aspects of children’s environment such as socioeconomic status (SES) cannot be investigated in twin studies because they are the same for children growing up together in a family. Here, using a new technique applied to DNA from 3000 unrelated children, we show significant genetic influence on family SES, and on its association with children’s IQ at ages 7 and 12. In addition to demonstrating the ability to investigate genetic influence on between-family environmental measures, our results emphasize the need to consider genetics in research and policy on family SES and its association with children’s IQ.
Meirmans and Hendrick (2011), among others, have noted that common measures of population differentiation such as Fst can be misleading (especially when it comes to making cross species comparisons concerning population structure) because Fst/Gst values are dependent on and constrained by the intra populational Heterogeneity (genetic diversity) within species. Simply:
(where Ht is the total genetic diversity and Hs is the within population genetic diversity (or expected genetic diversity)
Fst< 1-Expected Heterozygosity (Hs)
The result is that the magnitudes of the Fst values between subspecific populations are inversely related to the amount of genetic diversity within these populations. Here were, for example, F/Gst values (between subspecies) and Hs values (within subspecies and averaged across), based on autosomal microsatellite data, for 24 species with recognized subspecies (r = -0.57):
(Notice that three quarters don’t pass Alan Templeton’s made up subspecies = Fst > 0.25 – 0.30 criteria.)
Plotting F/Gst against Hs we get:
The relation above is very similar to that reported by Heller and Siegismund (2009). They looked at the association between Gst and Hs in 43 species, though it wasn’t clear if they limited consideration to diversity within and between recognized subspecies:
(Red line added at Fst ~ 0.05, Hs ~ 0.70)
Now, for comparison, the following between continental human race autosomal microsatellite Fst values have been reported:
(The number of loci used, the sample sizes, and the number of Human continental races compared are noted for reference.) The values range from 0.040 to 0.14; the n-weighted (by loci and sample size) average is 0.055.
And, based on Pemberton et al. (2013)’s list of microsatellite Hs values for 267 populations, we can compute the following Human continental race expected Heterozygosity values and the average of them:
We see then that the very low Fst value between Human continental races (Fst (micro) ~ 0.055) is about what one would expect to find were one dealing with subspecies in a species which had as much intra populational diversity as the Human species does (Hs (micro) ~ 0.72).
Below are results from the 2003 and 2011 English skills for life survey. Literacy and Numeracy were measured for the age 16 to 65 population. (Here.) Annoyingly, only %s by skill level were given. Moreover, the distributions was highly unnormal. This was unfortunate since the Literacy and Numeracy tests seemed to have been good measures of ability. To extract a d-vale, I compared the percent of Whites who fell above the skill level where approximately 50% of Whites fell to the % of Black Caribbeans who fell at and below this level. If you can think of a better method, feel free to offer it. I only compared Whites with BC because these were the only groups for which the English as first language rates were above 90%. The d-value came out to 0.77. I estimated a composite d-value of 0.86.
The Strong Horse
By Free Northerner
The Jacobins succeeded by being utopian and nice, then slowly expanding the definition of nice. The original Jacobin revolution ended rapidly after they began the Terrors. The more moderate Gramscian Joacobins succeeded by inches. They positied one small change as “nice”, “fair”, “equal” and this didn’t seem so bad, so people went along with it. (ie: a small pension so the nearly dead don’t spend their last couple years in miserable poverty). Each little “nice” thing added up until we came to our current cruel, inhuman behemoth. (ie: A pension system where rich 65 year-olds play golf on their non-existent, unemployed grandchildren’s dime).
Reaction can not win that way. It is not nice and never will be. Reality in this fallen world is harsh and ugly; those who are putting forth reality will be putting forth something harsh and ugly, not something nice.Violent restoration is near impossible and even if it succeeded, what we’d end up with in the end would hardly be what the reaction desires. I’m sure the Jacobins neither desired nor foresaw their revolution would end with a Corsican dictator and a Europe-wide war.
So we have to restore gradually, but we can not restore in the same manner the Jacobins ushered in their gradual revolution.
If we look at the current state of the Jacobins, we can see they keep their power mainly by control of the cultural institutions and by barely hidden aggression (such as that used on Watson, Richwine, Card, etc.). Neither of these can be defeated through Legionnaire’s form of subversion. It only plays into the Jacobites power.
By acting progressive you are further cementing the Jacobin’s apparent control over the cultural institutions. Know this, the apparent control is far weaker than it seems on the surface. A number of times in univerity after I made some right-wing (but not yet reactionary) point I was told after the fact that the person agreed with me but didn’t want to say anything. Others currently in the system have told me that people in the university system are not as left-wing as it seems, as its mostly a few really loud people and others simply going along to get along. The illusion of the Jacobin’s control is what builds the Jacobin’s control. By acting progressive you are furthering that illusion. By being open, you are shattering that illusion of consensus and control.
We will here go to Asch’s conformity experiments, which demonstrate that most people will conform to the group even when the group is objectively wrong in an easily verifiable way. Think about what kind of conformity can be manufactured for something as amorphous and hard to verify as politics.
But the more interesting part of the experiment was when the subject received a partner. The addition of a single confederate confirming the truth dropped the incidence of conformity by 80%.
If the Jacobins can force the illusion of progressive conformity, this will simply build the conformity, but if one person simply stands, the illusion is shattered.
To undermine the Cathedral’s moral-theology, one needs only to move a critical mass e.g., 10% of the populous to apostasy. To be in position to do this, one needs only to have a sufficiently cohesive core of reactivists who are plentiful enough to form phalanx, when needed, and who are dedicated and capable enough to anti-evangelize. The Cathedral recognizes this which is why it savagely targets any unified substantitive dissent, incipient or mature, imaginary or real (from Tea Partys to White Student Unions). This is obvious. Why dissenters fail to coalesce, such that they can not be individually harangued into submission is not.
Nyborg thinks so….
Nyborg, H. (2012). Migratory selection for inversely related covariant T-, and IQ-Nexus traits: Testing the IQ/T-Geo-Climatic-Origin theory by the General Trait Covariance model. Personality and Individual Differences.
Whether or not this is the case can readily be investigated by constructing an Add Health M-F scale and comparing mean differences. In table 1, Udry and Chantala (2004) list wave 2 variables that can be used, if anyone is interested … (If you need a (bootleg) copy of SPSS, let me know.)
TWCS has a superb post on Afro-Criminality:
“As well, Afros who emigrate to countries that never practiced slavery or colonialism still commit more crimes than other groups there…
Disproportionate Afro immigrant crime in France, Switzerland, Australia, London, Canada.”
HBD Chick finds that PISA scores in Spain correlated with Latitude… (Apparently, the same holds for Japan: Japanese north–south gradient in IQ predicts differences in stature, skin color, income, and homicide rate)
… and uncovers the church’s biosocial egalitarian engineering project:
from his Summa Theologica [pg. 2749]:
“The degrees within which consanguinity has been an impediment to marriage have varied according to various times…. [T]he Old Law permitted other degrees of consanguinity, in fact to a certain extent it commanded them, to wit that each man should take a wife from his kindred, in order to avoid confusion of inheritances: because at that time the Divine worship was handed down as the inheritance of the race. But afterwards more degrees were forbidden by the New Law which is the law of the spirit and of love, because the worship of God is no longer handed down and spread abroad by a carnal birth but by a spiritual grace: wherefore it was necessary that men should be yet more withdrawn from carnal things by devoting themselves to things spiritual, and that love should have a yet wider play. Hence in olden time marriage was forbidden even within the more remote degrees of consanguinity, in order that consanguinity and affinity might be the sources of a wider friendship; and this was reasonably extended to the seventh degree, both because beyond this it was difficult to have any recollection of the common stock, and because this was in keeping with the sevenfold grace of the Holy Ghost. Afterwards, however, towards these latter times the prohibition of the Church has been restricted to the fourth degree, because it became useless and dangerous to extend the prohibition to more remote degrees of consanguinity. Useless, because charity waxed cold in many hearts so that they had scarcely a greater bond of friendship with their more remote kindred than with strangers: and it was dangerous because through the prevalence of concupiscence and neglect men took no account of so numerous a kindred, and thus the prohibition of the more remote degrees became for many a snare leading to damnation.”
More insanity about race.
Insane, mendacious, dishonest, or factually incorrect:
Pigliucci, M. (2013). What are we to make of the concept of race?: Thoughts of a philosopher–scientist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
Ontology of Species:
Theoretical proof that more ancestrally similar people are more genetically similar in total.
Furnham, A., Richards, S. C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). The Dark Triad of Personality: A 10 Year Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(3), 199-216.
Martin, R. A., Lastuk, J. M., Jeffery, J., Vernon, P. A., & Veselka, L. (2012). Relationships between the Dark Triad and humor styles: A replication and extension. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(2), 178-182.
Boutwell, B. B., Franklin, T. W., Barnes, J. C., Beaver, K. M., Deaton, R., Lewis, R. H., … & Petkovsek, M. A. (2013). County-level IQ and fertility rates: A partial test of Differential-K theory. Personality and Individual Differences.
Briley, D. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2013). Explaining the Increasing Heritability of Cognitive Ability Across Development: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Twin and Adoption Studies. Psychological science.
More Flynn Effect:
More iq & religion:
More iq & PO:
Cohen, D. J., White, S., & Cohen, S. B. (2012). Mind the Gap The Black-White Literacy Gap in the National Assessment of Adult Literacy and Its Implications. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(2), 123-148.
More MI with respect to the BW gap:
Keith, T. Z., Fugate, M. H., DeGraff, M., Diamond, C. M., Shadrach, E. A., & Stevens, M. L. (1995). Using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis to test for construct bias: An example using the K-ABC. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13(4), 347-364.
Fan, X., Willson, V. L., & Reynolds, C. R. (1995). Assessing the similarity of the factor structure of the K-ABC for African-American and White children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13(2), 120-131.
Vietnamese IQ (not low):
Asma, 2013. The Myth of Universal Love
Singer, who is perhaps the world’s best known utilitarian philosopher, argues in his book “The Expanding Circle” that the relative neocortical sophistication of humans allows us to rationally broaden our ethical duty beyond the “tribe” — to an equal and impartial concern for all human beings. “If I have seen,” Singer writes, “that from an ethical point of view I am just one person among the many in my society, and my interests are no more important, from the point of view of the whole, than the similar interests of others within my society, I am ready to see that, from a still larger point of view, my society is just one among other societies, and the interests of members of my society are no more important, from that larger perspective, than the similar interests of members of other societies.”
Like mathematics, which can continue its recursive operations infinitely upward, ethical reasoning can spiral out (should spiral out, according to Singer) to larger and larger sets of equal moral subjects. “Taking the impartial element in ethical reasoning to its logical conclusion means, first, accepting that we ought to have equal concern for all human beings.”
All this sounds nice at first — indeed, I would like it to be true — but let me throw a little cold water on the idea. Singer seems to be suggesting that I arrive at perfect egalitarian ethics by first accepting perfect egalitarian metaphysics. But I, for one, do not accept it. Nor, I venture to guess, do many others. All people are not equally entitled to my time, affection, resources or moral duties — and only conjectural assumption can make them appear so.
I fully agree with Singer that were one to consider everyone to be substantially morally equal then it would only be logical to take everyone into account the same — and therefore to not prefer oneself to anyone else….But this isn’t why I reject the dogma. Rather, I do because I intuit that substantial inequality is a metaphysical principle of being. It seems to be a logical one too. If different things were principally the same, they could not be different. Substantial inequality therefore must be a part of the essence of what some-thing is….Metaphysical nature naturally informs morality. If morality is not to be based on what IS then on what? Of course, one might attempt to defy the way of things and to level all beings, to make all the same, but doing so is in discord with how-things-ARE, and what is discordant with the way of things is chaos bringing. And who wants more chaos? So, I am forced to reject equality, and with it human equality, as both a metaphysical and a moral principle: People are not metaphysically equal. They were not created substantially equal. They don’t deserve equal consideration in principle….But this is not to reject moral equality in toto. While different things in the world aren’t substantially equal, they are, inevitably, accidentally so. They are equal in some respects e.g., the salt and sugar over on the counter are both equally white. It is good and natural then, that is, in tune with nature of things to accept accidental moral equality. We grant equality in some respects, in some regards. People, while substantially morally unequal, are accidentally — in specific, often negotiable, instances — deemed equal.