Reed pulls an Unz


Race, Realism, and Race Realists

…Let us consider brown people in Peru, a small, heavily mestizo Andean nation of some thirty million. Let us also consider the International Math Olympiad, an annual contest of high-end mathematical talent around the planet. In 2012, Peru finished 16th. Results from the Olympiad vary considerably by year: In 2013, Peru finished 26th. Australia finished 15th and 27th in those two years (and Mexico 17th in 2013). Yet it is hard for me to see how an inherently stupid people could make it to 16th. This is especially puzzling because Peru does not have the highly developed mechanisms for discovering talent that America has.

I consequently suggest that race realists, at least with respect to South America, have become more racial than realistic and may suffer from a recto-cranial inversion. I hope that Fred on Everything can serve them as salutary forceps….

My comment smackdown:

Regarding the IMO results, on the national level, a two minute google scholar search pulls up Rindermann’s (2011) sophisticated analysis. As expected, on average, Peru performs below (global) average. (Here.) The IMO results thus do not seriously disagree with the contemporaneous international test and IQ based ones varyingly reported by Hanushek and Woessmann (2010), Lynn and Vanhanen (2012), Altinok et al. (2013), etc. Not to mention other indexes of ability going back hundreds of years.

Ageheapingperu

As for intra-national differences, it’s well known that self identifying Peruvian “indigenous” under-perform self identifying “non-indigenous”. Typical discussion:

The background and test score differences between indigenous and non-indigenous students give additional insight into the distinct challenges that indigenous students face. In every country, the test score gap between indigenous and non-indigenous students was greater in Spanish reading exams than in math exams, and the gaps in both subjects ranged between 0.6 and 1.1 standard deviations. (Hernandez-Zavala, M., Patrinos, H. A., & Sakellariou, C. (2006). Quality of schooling and quality of schools for indigenous students in Guatemala, Mexico and Peru (Vol. 3982). World Bank Publications.)

Presumably, self identifying indigenous (in the above sample) have more Amerindian ancestry. They do in other ones, ones which also show that education (negatively) correlates with Amer ancestry.

Ancestryperu

(From: Pereira et al. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.)

But the photos!

Reed’s Peruvian IMO Photo Proof (with composite national images for comparison)

PeruIMO

Of the 23 Olympiads, 22 were males (shown) — a situation which confirms at least one stereotype. At least 2 of the 22 males (21 and 22) look distinctively Chinese Peruvian. Probably another over-representation. Of the remaining 20, #1-5 look more Spanish than average, #6-17 look about average, and #18-20 look more Amerindian than average. So 5/20 versus 3/20 which translates into a more-Spanish-ancestry advantage of about 1/3rd of a standard deviation. There we go.

Imaginable, Reed would judge things differently. Readers are free to offer their own opinions. Most, hopefully, would agree that this is a pretty awful method. Perhaps we could count Spanish surnames, instead.

The Allele Counting Begins

Factor Analysis of Population Allele Frequencies as a Simple, Novel Method of Detecting Signals of Recent Polygenic Selection: The Example of Educational Attainment and IQ
Davide Piffer

Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.

Correlation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism with latitude and a hunter-gather lifestyle suggests culture–gene coevolution and selective pressure on cognition genes due to climate
Davide Piffer

Dual-inheritance theory posits that the genotype has an impact on the evolution of human behavior and that cultural traits can be constrained by genetic imperatives. A large body of studies provides evidence that the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with executive function, working memory (WM), and intelligence. A survey of the population genetics database provides evidence that COMT gene frequencies vary across populations. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the COMT gene has an impact on cultural evolution, specifically on the adoption of an agricultural vs. a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Statistically significant differences in COMT allele frequencies between hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies were found. Ethnic groups whose economy is based on farming have higher frequencies of the Met allele (symbol: A), whereas societies based on a hunter-gatherer economy have very low frequencies of the Met allele and a disproportionate predominance of the Val allele. Moreover, the frequency of the Met allele was positively correlated to the populations’ IQ (r = 0.57). The FNBP1L gene (rs236330) is associated with childhood and adult intelligence and it varies in frequency across populations. Frequency of rs236330 was also significantly correlated with the populations’ IQ (r = 0.81). COMT and FNBP1L had fairly similar geographical distributions (r = 0.44) although the result did not reach statistical significance. The results suggest that the genotype of a population influences its cultural development in fairly specific and predictable ways. Met allele frequency was positively correlated with latitude (r = 0.56), suggesting selective pressure due to climate.

GCTA Establishes Genetic Basis of Class Differences In Intelligence

Not that there was any doubt.

Trzaskowski, M., Harlaar, N., Arden, R., Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., McMillan, A., Plomin, R. (2014). Genetic influence on family socioeconomic status and children’s intelligence. Intelligence, 42, 83-88.

Environmental measures used widely in the behavioral sciences show nearly as much genetic influence as behavioral measures, a critical finding for interpreting associations between environmental factors and children’s development. This research depends on the twin method that compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins, but key aspects of children’s environment such as socioeconomic status (SES) cannot be investigated in twin studies because they are the same for children growing up together in a family. Here, using a new technique applied to DNA from 3000 unrelated children, we show significant genetic influence on family SES, and on its association with children’s IQ at ages 7 and 12. In addition to demonstrating the ability to investigate genetic influence on between-family environmental measures, our results emphasize the need to consider genetics in research and policy on family SES and its association with children’s IQ.

Fst, Heterozygosity, and Subspecies

Meirmans and Hendrick (2011), among others, have noted that common measures of population differentiation such as Fst can be misleading (especially when it comes to making cross species comparisons concerning population structure) because Fst/Gst values are dependent on and constrained by the intra populational Heterogeneity (genetic diversity) within species. Simply:

Fst

(where Ht is the total genetic diversity and Hs is the within population genetic diversity (or expected genetic diversity)

ergo,

Fst< 1-Expected Heterozygosity (Hs)

The result is that the magnitudes of the Fst values between subspecific populations are inversely related to the amount of genetic diversity within these populations. Here were, for example, F/Gst values (between subspecies) and Hs values (within subspecies and averaged across), based on autosomal microsatellite data, for 24 species with recognized subspecies (r = -0.57):

FstHe

(Notice that three quarters don’t pass Alan Templeton’s made up subspecies = Fst > 0.25 – 0.30 criteria.)

Plotting F/Gst against Hs we get:

FstHe2

The relation above is very similar to that reported by Heller and Siegismund (2009). They looked at the association between Gst and Hs in 43 species, though it wasn’t clear if they limited consideration to diversity within and between recognized subspecies:

GstHs

(Red line added at Fst ~ 0.05, Hs ~ 0.70)

Now, for comparison, the following between continental human race autosomal microsatellite Fst values have been reported:

HautoFst

(The number of loci used, the sample sizes, and the number of Human continental races compared are noted for reference.) The values range from 0.040 to 0.14; the n-weighted (by loci and sample size) average is 0.055.

And, based on Pemberton et al. (2013)’s list of microsatellite Hs values for 267 populations, we can compute the following Human continental race expected Heterozygosity values and the average of them:

HumanMicroHe

We see then that the very low Fst value between Human continental races (Fst (micro) ~ 0.055) is about what one would expect to find were one dealing with subspecies in a species which had as much intra populational diversity as the Human species does (Hs (micro) ~ 0.72).

Literacy and Numeracy in England by Race

Below are results from the 2003 and 2011 English skills for life survey. Literacy and Numeracy were measured for the age 16 to 65 population. (Here.) Annoyingly, only %s by skill level were given. Moreover, the distributions was highly unnormal. This was unfortunate since the Literacy and Numeracy tests seemed to have been good measures of ability. To extract a d-vale, I compared the percent of Whites who fell above the skill level where approximately 50% of Whites fell to the % of Black Caribbeans who fell at and below this level. If you can think of a better method, feel free to offer it. I only compared Whites with BC because these were the only groups for which the English as first language rates were above 90%. The d-value came out to 0.77. I estimated a composite d-value of 0.86.

UKskillsforLife

Undermining Progressivism — In Principle, Not Difficult

The Strong Horse
By Free Northerner
…..
The Jacobins succeeded by being utopian and nice, then slowly expanding the definition of nice. The original Jacobin revolution ended rapidly after they began the Terrors. The more moderate Gramscian Joacobins succeeded by inches. They positied one small change as “nice”, “fair”, “equal” and this didn’t seem so bad, so people went along with it. (ie: a small pension so the nearly dead don’t spend their last couple years in miserable poverty). Each little “nice” thing added up until we came to our current cruel, inhuman behemoth. (ie: A pension system where rich 65 year-olds play golf on their non-existent, unemployed grandchildren’s dime).

Reaction can not win that way. It is not nice and never will be. Reality in this fallen world is harsh and ugly; those who are putting forth reality will be putting forth something harsh and ugly, not something nice.Violent restoration is near impossible and even if it succeeded, what we’d end up with in the end would hardly be what the reaction desires. I’m sure the Jacobins neither desired nor foresaw their revolution would end with a Corsican dictator and a Europe-wide war.

So we have to restore gradually, but we can not restore in the same manner the Jacobins ushered in their gradual revolution.
If we look at the current state of the Jacobins, we can see they keep their power mainly by control of the cultural institutions and by barely hidden aggression (such as that used on Watson, Richwine, Card, etc.). Neither of these can be defeated through Legionnaire’s form of subversion. It only plays into the Jacobites power.

By acting progressive you are further cementing the Jacobin’s apparent control over the cultural institutions. Know this, the apparent control is far weaker than it seems on the surface. A number of times in univerity after I made some right-wing (but not yet reactionary) point I was told after the fact that the person agreed with me but didn’t want to say anything. Others currently in the system have told me that people in the university system are not as left-wing as it seems, as its mostly a few really loud people and others simply going along to get along. The illusion of the Jacobin’s control is what builds the Jacobin’s control. By acting progressive you are furthering that illusion. By being open, you are shattering that illusion of consensus and control.

We will here go to Asch’s conformity experiments, which demonstrate that most people will conform to the group even when the group is objectively wrong in an easily verifiable way. Think about what kind of conformity can be manufactured for something as amorphous and hard to verify as politics.

But the more interesting part of the experiment was when the subject received a partner. The addition of a single confederate confirming the truth dropped the incidence of conformity by 80%.

If the Jacobins can force the illusion of progressive conformity, this will simply build the conformity, but if one person simply stands, the illusion is shattered.

To undermine the Cathedral’s moral-theology, one needs only to move a critical mass e.g., 10% of the populous to apostasy. To be in position to do this, one needs only to have a sufficiently cohesive core of reactivists who are plentiful enough to form phalanx, when needed, and who are dedicated and capable enough to anti-evangelize. The Cathedral recognizes this which is why it savagely targets any unified substantitive dissent, incipient or mature, imaginary or real (from Tea Partys to White Student Unions). This is obvious. Why dissenters fail to coalesce, such that they can not be individually harangued into submission is not.

Racial Differences in Masculinity-Femininity?

Nyborg thinks so….

Nyborg, H. (2012). Migratory selection for inversely related covariant T-, and IQ-Nexus traits: Testing the IQ/T-Geo-Climatic-Origin theory by the General Trait Covariance model. Personality and Individual Differences.

Nyborg 2010

(Compare….)

Whether or not this is the case can readily be investigated by constructing an Add Health M-F scale and comparing mean differences. In table 1, Udry and Chantala (2004) list wave 2 variables that can be used, if anyone is interested … (If you need a (bootleg) copy of SPSS, let me know.)

randoms

TWCS has a superb post on Afro-Criminality:

Whence Afro criminality?

“As well, Afros who emigrate to countries that never practiced slavery or colonialism still commit more crimes than other groups there…

Disproportionate Afro immigrant crime in France, Switzerland, Australia, London, Canada.”

….

HBD Chick finds that PISA scores in Spain correlated with Latitude… (Apparently, the same holds for Japan: Japanese north–south gradient in IQ predicts differences in stature, skin color, income, and homicide rate)

… and uncovers the church’s biosocial egalitarian engineering project:


thomas aquinas on too much outbreeding

from his Summa Theologica [pg. 2749]:

“The degrees within which consanguinity has been an impediment to marriage have varied according to various times…. [T]he Old Law permitted other degrees of consanguinity, in fact to a certain extent it commanded them, to wit that each man should take a wife from his kindred, in order to avoid confusion of inheritances: because at that time the Divine worship was handed down as the inheritance of the race. But afterwards more degrees were forbidden by the New Law which is the law of the spirit and of love, because the worship of God is no longer handed down and spread abroad by a carnal birth but by a spiritual grace: wherefore it was necessary that men should be yet more withdrawn from carnal things by devoting themselves to things spiritual, and that love should have a yet wider play. Hence in olden time marriage was forbidden even within the more remote degrees of consanguinity, in order that consanguinity and affinity might be the sources of a wider friendship; and this was reasonably extended to the seventh degree, both because beyond this it was difficult to have any recollection of the common stock, and because this was in keeping with the sevenfold grace of the Holy Ghost. Afterwards, however, towards these latter times the prohibition of the Church has been restricted to the fourth degree, because it became useless and dangerous to extend the prohibition to more remote degrees of consanguinity. Useless, because charity waxed cold in many hearts so that they had scarcely a greater bond of friendship with their more remote kindred than with strangers: and it was dangerous because through the prevalence of concupiscence and neglect men took no account of so numerous a kindred, and thus the prohibition of the more remote degrees became for many a snare leading to damnation.”

More insanity about race.

Sane:

Sesardic, N. (2013). Confusions about race: A new installment. Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences.

Spencer, Q. Biological Theory and the Metaphysics of Race: A Reply to Kaplan and Winther. Biological Theory, 1-7.

Spencer, Q. (2012). What ‘biological racial realism’should mean. Philosophical studies, 159(2), 181-204.

Temporarily Sane:


Gannett, L. (2013). Theodosius Dobzhansky and the genetic race concept. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.

Pierce, J. (2013). Glasgow’s Race Antirealism: Experimental Philosophy and Thought Experiments. Journal of Social Philosophy, 44(2), 146-168.

Insane, mendacious, dishonest, or factually incorrect:

Pigliucci, M. (2013). What are we to make of the concept of race?: Thoughts of a philosopher–scientist. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.

Templeton, A. R. (2013). Biological races in humans. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.

Ontology of Species:

Mayr, E. (1987). The ontological status of species: scientific progress and philosophical terminology. Biology and Philosophy, 2(2), 145-66.

Genetic similarity:

Theoretical proof that more ancestrally similar people are more genetically similar in total.

Tal, O. (2012). Two complementary perspectives on inter-individual genetic distance. Biosystems.

….

DT/LH related:

Jonason, P. K., & Kavanagh, P. (2010). The dark side of love: Love styles and the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(6), 606-610.

Dillon, H. M., Adair, L. E., Wang, Z., & Johnson, Z. (2013). Slow and steady wins the race: Life history, mate value, and mate settling. Personality and Individual Differences.

Jonason, P. K., & Buss, D. M. (2012). Avoiding entangling commitments: Tactics for implementing a short-term mating strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 606-610.

Furnham, A., Richards, S. C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). The Dark Triad of Personality: A 10 Year Review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(3), 199-216.

Aitken, S. J., Lyons, M., & Jonason, P. K. (2013). Dads or cads? Women’s strategic decisions in the mating game. Personality and Individual Differences.


Martin, R. A., Lastuk, J. M., Jeffery, J., Vernon, P. A., & Veselka, L. (2012). Relationships between the Dark Triad and humor styles: A replication and extension. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(2), 178-182.

Jonason, P. K., Jones, A., & Lyons, M. (2013). Creatures of the night: Chronotypes and the Dark Triad traits. Personality and Individual Differences.

r/k

Boutwell, B. B., Franklin, T. W., Barnes, J. C., Beaver, K. M., Deaton, R., Lewis, R. H., … & Petkovsek, M. A. (2013). County-level IQ and fertility rates: A partial test of Differential-K theory. Personality and Individual Differences.

More iq

Briley, D. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2013). Explaining the Increasing Heritability of Cognitive Ability Across Development: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Twin and Adoption Studies. Psychological science.

More Flynn Effect:

Liu, J., & Lynn, R. (2013). An increase of intelligence in China 1986–2012. Intelligence, 41(5), 479-481.

Flynn, J. R. (2013). The “Flynn Effect” and Flynn’s paradox. Intelligence.

Flynn, J. R., & Weiss, L. G. (2007). American IQ gains from 1932 to 2002: The WISC subtests and educational progress. International Journal of Testing, 7(2), 209-224.


Dutton, E., & Lynn, R. (2013). A negative Flynn effect in Finland, 1997–2009. Intelligence.

More SH:

Kane, H., & Brand, C. (2008). Spearman’s Hypothesis: Support from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Mankind quarterly, 49(1), 3-22.

More iq & religion:

Cribari-Neto, F., & Souza, T. C. (2013). Religious belief and intelligence: Worldwide evidence. Intelligence, 41(5), 482-489.

More iq & PO:

Dutton, E. (2013). The cultural mediation hypothesis: A critical examination. Intelligence, 41(5), 321-327.

More gapology:


Cohen, D. J., White, S., & Cohen, S. B. (2012). Mind the Gap The Black-White Literacy Gap in the National Assessment of Adult Literacy and Its Implications. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(2), 123-148.

More MI with respect to the BW gap:

Keith, T. Z., Fugate, M. H., DeGraff, M., Diamond, C. M., Shadrach, E. A., & Stevens, M. L. (1995). Using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis to test for construct bias: An example using the K-ABC. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13(4), 347-364.

Fan, X., Willson, V. L., & Reynolds, C. R. (1995). Assessing the similarity of the factor structure of the K-ABC for African-American and White children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 13(2), 120-131.

Vietnamese IQ (not low):


Rindermann, H., Hoang, Q. S. N., & Baumeister, A. E. (2013). Cognitive ability, parenting and instruction in Vietnam and Germany. Intelligence, 41(5), 366-377
.